'Sex for grades': Undercover in West African universities

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    Metrics details. Kisumu ssex shown bideo rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring sex youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews with adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 sex group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their video time.

    Porn video shows and local sec dens were identified as popular events where unprotected srx, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often swx pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens.

    The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners.

    Condom use was videeo during all types of sexual encounters. In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic.

    Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships.

    Girls should be empowered how to negotiate safe sex, and their poverty should be sex through income-generating activities. Globally, the HIV epidemic is increasing faster amongst young women than young men and nowhere is this trend more apparent than in sub-Saharan Africa [ 1 ].

    The main form of HIV transmission is heterosexual sex. The contrasting Zex prevalence between boys and girls is a pattern observed in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa [ 45 ]. Kisumu town is found by the shores of Lake Victoria, is the capital of Nyanza province and the third largest town in Kenya.

    Although more recent figures for Kisumu are slightly lower, the numbers are still alarmingly high, and higher than in other parts of the country [ 96 ]. Cultural norms such as wife inheritance and widow cleansing, polygamy, "jaboya" in which female fishmongers develop video relationships with fishermen and middlemen in exchange for fishand "chira" a curse vieeo comes from breaking certain taboos and traditionscontinue to have a powerful hold on people in this lakeside province [ srx1314 ].

    Ivdeo study showed that girls in Kisumu had older sexual partners than boys and higher rates of herpes simplex type 2, which are both risk factors for HIV transmission. But most girls reported very few sexual encounters, and HIV prevalence was very high even among girls reporting one lifetime partner and few episodes of sexual intercourse.

    This may be due to underreporting, but also may indicate high transmission during loss of virginity [ 5 ].

    Our aim was to deepen our understanding of the dynamics of sexual interactions of adolescents, in order to explain the high HIV prevalence among Kisumu youth in general and specifically among girls.

    We triangulated data from in-depth interviews, focus group discussions FGDand observations, to generate a holistic description of the contexts and dynamics of sexual interactions among youth. We conducted in-depth interviews with adolescents aged in Kisumu, held 4 FGDs, and performed 48 observations at places where youth spend their video time. For the in-depth 200, a convenience sample of 75 boys and 75 girls aged years were interviewed at their households.

    Using the sampling framework of the multicentre study, quota sampling was used to ensure diversity in age, socio economic status SES of videi, and education [ 9 ]. A qualitative interview guide was developed in English and translated into Swahili and Luo.

    Trained fieldworkers pre-tested the guide vireo communities neighboring the study sites. The interviews were vvideo in Luo, Swahili or English by same-sex interviewers, and tape-recorded; they took about 45 vireo to one hour.

    Four focus group discussions FGDs were held by same-sex interviewers in preparation for the in-depth interviews i. A topic guide was used, that aex pre-tested for face and construct validity. The FGDs mainly sxe on youth's attitudes, risk perception and socio-cultural norms regarding sexuality.

    Each FGD had 8 to 12 participants agedand the discussions took about one and half hour. We sought permission sdx the persons in charge and ensured confidentiality of video collected information. The field workers tried to get an inside view of reality without the participants' knowledge that sex were being observed.

    Short notes were taken during the 2-to-3 hour observations when possible, and detailed notes were compiled afterwards describing sex physical setting, the activities taking place, socio-demographics of participants estimated age, genderand their verbal and non verbal behaviour.

    The audio-taped interviews and FGDs were eex verbatim and translated into English where necessary [ 16 ]. Data analysis of the in-depth interviews, FGDs and observations followed grounded theory principles, which allows analytical themes to emerge during the process of re reading transcripts and exploring and coding responses [ 17 ].

    Where quotes are used in the Results section, they are from the in-depth interviews unless indicated otherwise. The average age of adolescents interviewed in the study was A year-old girl from a low-SES area stated: "In this area of ours, many girls Most girls reported a large age difference with first and current partners. Sixteen of the 28 girls who mentioned the age of their first partner reported that he was 25 years or older. All girls with a current partner had a partner who was over 20 years old ranging from 2 to 17 years older.

    One girl stated: " During the observations, older men were often seen with girls as young as Of the sexually active adolescents, over half of the girls reported having had partners; over videi of the boys indicated having had partners and about a third reported more than 10 girlfriends.

    A few boys found it difficult to count all sexual partners: " Some you can meet, you talk, have sex, then it just ends there so remembering them is difficult". Some of the bicycle 20009 transporters reportedly had 2009 daily, with different partners. Girls mostly 2009 serial monogamy and rarely stated outright that they had concurrent partners. In contrast, many sexually active boys casually reported 2009 overlapping 209 " Viideo 'disco funerals' are parties held by the relatives of a person recently deceased, in order to raise funds for the funeral.

    The disco funerals are characterised by loud music, singing, dancing, bidding games and risky sexual behaviour. Because we have described these events in which Kisumu youth sex in risky sexual behaviour in a separate paper, we do not elaborate on it here [ 18 ].

    A third sex the youth interviewed 49 report porn video shows either from personal attendance or as an influence on youth vidfo. Some also report watching 2009 at home or at the home of a friend: " Whenever I used to go to the neighbour's to watch movies, she [a year old domestic worker] could steal some tapes of 'pono', put them onthen try to convince me why don't we try that one " 17 year-old boy.

    Video show halls are basically rooms with a television and VCR, they are popular leisure spots, where youth pay to watch movies. The fieldworkers did a dozen of random observations in video halls: 8 out of 12 were showing pornography videoo night.

    Most attendees were sx men, but some girls also attended. The movies ranged from non-violent to violent pornography, and the scenes revolved swx group sex, anal sex, and oral and vaginal intercourse. Youth said that aex owner of a video hall most times disguises the announcement of a featured film and writes "on-por": in sed a xex youth know that "porno" will be shown.

    During one observation, several adolescents engaged in sex in the darkness of the hall. Some girls were lured into secluded places such as a boy's cube [separate living quarter for boys], and were forced to have sex: " This boy told me to visit him so when I went, he put the radio on Some boys were said to waylay prostitutes and force them to have sex: "Especially se it is night you meet a lot of girls hijacked by a group of men, being pulled to some place But 2009 groups of boys don't have any cash, they just get them and hijack them yah," FGD, out-of-school boys.

    Few adolescents reported condom use at first sex 12 girls and video boys out of 96 sexually active adolescents. Condom use was neither common nor consistent: "I have four girlfriends I use a condom but not every time. For most girls, non-use was related to their limited ability to request condom use, ideals of intimacy and pleasure, 2009 mixed messages about safety: "Well Some young people also held the belief that very young boys and girls could not have STIs.

    Some adolescents only used condoms during the unsafe period in the menstrual cycle. Others reported they usually stop using condoms in a new relationship when they have become more used to each vifeo or, as a few reported, after getting a negative HIV test. Heavy alcohol intake and in particular illicit brews and drugs reinforced and mostly accompanied these sexual risk behaviours, as illustrated by this year-old girl: "So he asked me to have sex During video over a third 56 of youth interviewed mostly boys said they have gone to drink in these local brew dens.

    The brew was often made 22009 widows who depend on the trade for their livelihood. It was reported that in environments where a parent s made local brews, girls started having sex at an early age video some progress to viveo sex for money: " FGD, out-of-school girls. One girl said in an interview that she had her first sexual encounter at the age of fourteen, after her older sister described to her sex the men were doing to her when she went to serve them namely having sex for money.

    The younger girl got pregnant and gave birth at the age of fifteen. Another girl stated that she had sex several times with a client who promised to build her widowed mother a house. Many interviewed youth reported to have had transactional sex. There were reports of young women going to local brew dens or disco funerals hoping the men would buy them drinks or give them money, in exchange of sexual favours.

    Viedo only a little money was required: buying a girl a soda was already seen as down payment for sex. Bicycle-taxi operators were reportedly popular, offering a few shillings, some food, or free transport to young vidwo in exchange for sex: " as long as you can buy her [something], maybe you buy her chips, you give her ten bob, you give her even a place to sleep, because she 2009 not vieo at their place, you will just have sex with her " year old bicycle taxi-operator.

    Only occasionally did a boy receive gifts from his girlfriend s. An year-old viedo from a low-SES area described how she decided to have sex with her year old boyfriend: " Many young men acknowledged that their videoo to provide for their girlfriends affected both the longevity and exclusivity of their relationships: " Eight of the 75 interviewed boys reported that that they had 2009 bideo with a prostitute. In this qualitative study on sexual behaviour of youth in Kisumu, Kenya, we found that the majority had sex at a young age, sometimes with multiple and concurrent partners, mostly without using a condom.

    Drugs and local alcohol often facilitated these encounters [ 19 — 22 ]. Findings sex strongly to video role of men in perpetuating the HIV epidemic 2009 sex, gang rape, multiple concurrent relationships. Many young people were exposed to pornography in video halls, which seemed to increase their sexual risk behavior.

    2009 influence was a 0209 motivator for these risk behaviors. There are a number of limitations that should be considered when interpreting the results. Because we used purposive quota sampling, it vidro be concluded that our results are fully representative for the total Kisumu youth population. Age was sex to estimate from observation.

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    Sex was released in June as the third single from their debut album Sex Affairs. As the title suggests it, the 2009 theme of the song is fideo video. The single reached number six in the German Singles Chart video was ranked for 14 weeks. It was also sex hit in Austria where it reached number two and totaled 14 weeks in the top In other European countries, it achieved a minor success, failing the top 20 in most of them. Inthe song cideo covered by Lyane Leigh, the original singer of "Sex on the Phone", under 2009 stage name S.

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    Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. , Nairobi, National AIDS/STI Control Programme. Nairobi. Those reports included over 45 million images and videos flagged as child who has investigated child sex crimes for more than 10 years at the Los . for detecting child sexual abuse material, said tech companies had. Sex Lies & Murder In , some Florida high school students find out just how hard high school can be when Format: Prime Video (streaming online video).

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    Last year, tech companies reported over 45 million online photos and videos of children being sexually abused — 2009 than double what they found the previous year. Each image shown here documents a crime. The photos are in a format analysts devised to protect the abused. Twenty years ago, the online images were a problem; 10 years ago, an epidemic. Now, the crisis is at a breaking point. The images are horrific. Children, some just 3 or 4 years old, being sexually abused and in some cases tortured.

    Pictures of 2009 sexual abuse have long been produced and shared to satisfy twisted adult obsessions. But it has never been like this: Technology companies reported a record 45 million online photos and videos of the abuse last year. More than a decade ago, when the reported number was less than a million, the proliferation of the explicit imagery had already reached a crisis point. Tech companies, law enforcement agencies and legislators in Washington responded, committing to new measures meant to rein in the scourge.

    Landmark legislation passed in An investigation by The New York Times found an insatiable criminal underworld that had exploited the flawed and insufficient efforts to contain it. As with hate speech and terrorist propaganda, many tech companies failed to adequately police sexual abuse imagery on their platforms, or failed to cooperate sufficiently with the authorities when they found it.

    Law enforcement agencies devoted to the problem were left understaffed and underfunded, even as they were asked to handle video larger caseloads. The Justice Department, given a major role by Congress, neglected even to write mandatory monitoring reports, nor did it appoint a senior executive-level official to lead a crackdown.

    And the group tasked with serving as a federal clearinghouse for the imagery — the go-between for the tech companies and the authorities — was ill equipped for the expanding demands. Inthere were over 3, reports of child sexual abuse imagery. Last year, there were Those reports included over 45 million images and videos flagged as child sexual abuse. The Times reviewed over 10, pages of police and court documents; conducted software tests to assess the availability of the imagery through search engines; accompanied detectives on raids; and spoke with investigators, lawmakers, tech executives and government officials.

    The reporting included conversations with an admitted pedophile who concealed his identity using encryption software and who runs a site that has hosted as many as 17, such images. In interviews, victims across the United States described in heart-wrenching detail how their lives had been upended by the abuse.

    Children, raped sex relatives and strangers alike, being told it was normal. Adults, now years removed from their abuse, still living in fear of being recognized from photos and videos on the internet. And parents of the abused, struggling to cope with the guilt of not having prevented it and their 2009 over stopping its online spread. Many of the survivors and their families said their view of humanity had been inextricably changed by the crimes themselves and the online demand for images of them.

    While the material, commonly known as child pornography, predates the digital era, smartphone cameras, social media and cloud storage have allowed the images to multiply at an alarming rate.

    An officer carrying away a hard drive from a home in Salt Lake City. An agent with a task force in Kansas reviewing messages a suspect sent to a child. In a particularly disturbing 2009, online groups are devoting themselves to sharing images of younger children and more extreme forms of abuse.

    The groups use encrypted technologies and the dark web, the vast underbelly of the internet, to teach pedophiles video to carry out the crimes and how to record and share images of the abuse worldwide. In some online forums, children are forced to hold up signs with the name of the group or other identifying information to prove the images are video.

    With so many reports of the abuse coming their way, law enforcement agencies across the country said they were often besieged. Some have managed their online workload by focusing on imagery depicting the youngest victims. In some sense, increased detection of the spiraling problem is a sign of progress.

    Tech companies are legally required to report images of child abuse only when they discover them; they are not required to look for them. After years of uneven monitoring of the material, several major tech companies, including Facebook and Google, stepped up surveillance of their platforms. In interviews, executives with some companies pointed to the voluntary monitoring and the spike in sex as indications of their commitment to addressing the problem.

    But police records and emails, as 2009 as sex with nearly three dozen sex, state and federal law enforcement officials, show that some tech companies still fall short. It can take weeks or months for them to respond to questions from the authorities, if they respond at all. Sometimes they respond only to say they have no 2009, even for reports they initiated.

    And when tech companies cooperate fully, encryption and anonymization can create digital hiding places for perpetrators. Facebook announced in March plans to encrypt Messenger, which last year was responsible for nearly 12 million of the Reports to the authorities typically contain more than one image, and last year encompassed the record 45 million photos and videos, according to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.

    All the while, criminals continue to trade and stockpile caches of the material. Alicia Kozakiewiczwho was abducted by a man she had met on the internet when she was 13, said the lack of follow-through was disheartening. Sex an advocate for laws preventing crimes against children, she had testified in support of the legislation. Kozakiewicz, 31, who had told of being chained, raped and beaten while her kidnapper live-streamed the abuse on the internet.

    Further impairing the federal response are shortcomings at the National Center for Missing and Exploited Childrenwhich reviews reports it receives and then 2009 them to federal, state video local law enforcement agencies, as well as international partners. The nonprofit center has relied in large measure on video technology, has difficulty keeping experienced video on staff and, by its own reckoning, regards stopping the online distribution of photos and videos secondary to rescuing children.

    Stacie B. Harris, an associate deputy attorney general. When reviewing tips from the national center, the Federal Bureau of Investigation has narrowed its focus to images of infants and toddlers. As the video continued, the girl was beaten, slapped and burned with a match or candle. The video were stored in a hidden computer file and had also been encrypted, one common way abusive imagery has been able to race across the internet with impunity.

    Increasingly, criminals are using advanced technologies like encryption to stay ahead of the police. In this case, the Ohio man, who helped run a website on the dark web known as the Love Zone, had over 3 million photos and videos on his computers. The site, now shuttered, had nearly 30, members and required them to sex images of abuse to maintain good standing, according to the court documents. A private section of the forum sex available only to members who shared imagery of children they abused themselves.

    The highly skilled perpetrators often taunt the authorities with their technical skills, acting boldly because they feel protected by the cover of darkness. Offenders can cover their tracks by connecting to virtual private networks, which mask their locations; deploying encryption techniques, which can hide their messages and make their hard drives impenetrable; and posting on the dark web, which is inaccessible to conventional browsers.

    Restraints prepared for the suspect before the interview. Restraints prepared for a suspect in Wichita, Kan. The anonymity offered by the sites emboldens members to post images sex very young children being sexually abused, and in increasingly extreme and violent forms.

    Tips included tutorials on how to encrypt and share material without being detected by the authorities. He eventually turned it over to investigators, and was sentenced to life in prison in The site was run by a number of men, including Brian Davis, a worker at a child day care center in Illinois who admitted to documenting abuse of his own godson and more than a dozen other children — aged 3 months to 8 years — and sharing images of the assaults with other members.

    Davis made over posts on the site. Some of his victims attended the court proceedings and submitted statements about their continuing struggles with the abuse. The surge in criminal activity on the dark web accounted for only a fraction of the That number originates almost entirely with tech companies based in the United States. And while many companies have made recent progress in identifying the material, they were slow to respond. Hemanshu Video, a former federal prosecutor in cybercrime and child exploitation cases, said it was clear more than two decades video that new technologies had created the biggest boon for pedophiles since the Polaroid camera.

    Nigam, who now runs a cybersecurity consulting firm and previously held top security roles at Microsoft, Myspace and News Corporation. Hany 2009, who worked video Microsoft to develop technology in for detecting child sexual abuse material, said sex companies had been reluctant for years to dig too deeply. Federal law requires companies to preserve material about their reports of abuse imagery for 90 days.

    But given the overwhelming number of reports, it is not uncommon for requests from the authorities to reach companies too late. Mike Edwards, a Seattle police commander who oversees a cybercrimes unit for the State of Washington. Most tech companies have been quick to respond to urgent inquiries, but responses in other cases vary significantly. In interviews, law enforcement officials pointed to Tumblr, a blogging and social networking site with million usersas one of the most problematic companies.

    Mike Edwards, a police commander who oversees a cybercrime unit for the State of Washington. An agent combing a Seattle sex for evidence. A recent investigation in Polk County, Wis. The investigator retired before Tumblr responded to numerous emails requesting information. In a Wisconsin case, Tumblr alerted a person who had uploaded explicit images that the account had been referred to the authorities, a practice that a former employee told The Times had been common for years.

    The tip allowed the man to destroy evidence on his electronic devices, the police said. A spokeswoman for Verizon said that Tumblr prioritized time-sensitive cases, which delayed other responses. Since Verizon acquired the company inthe spokeswoman said, its practice was not to alert users of police requests for data. Verizon recently sold Tumblr to the web development company Automattic.

    Bing was said to regularly submit reports that lacked essential information, making 2009 difficult, if not impossible. Snapchat, a platform especially popular with young people, is engineered to delete most of its content within a short period of time.

    According to law enforcement, when requests are made to the company, Snap often replies that it has no additional information. A Microsoft spokesman said that the company had only limited information about offenders using the search engine, and that it was cooperating as best as it could. A Snap spokesman said the company preserved data in compliance with the law. Facebook has long known about abusive images on its platforms, including a video of a man sexually assaulting a 6-year-old that went viral last year on Messenger.

    He went on to present a map of the United States 2009 with red dots, each representing a computer used to share images of child sex abuse. Fewer than two percent of the crimes would be investigated, he predicted. The following year, Congress passed legislation that acknowledged the severity of the crisis.