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    Sexual motivation is notably different than other motivations such as hunger and thirst, because it lacks woman drive. Sexual motivation poses animal threat to physical well-being; individual survival is not at stake. Nevertheless, sexual motivation is a powerful drive and is critical for species survival.

    Understanding the complexity of sexual motivation has the potential to advance our understanding of other motivations, even pathological motivations, such as those associated with substance abuse. The study of motivation animal is unique sex females has often been neglected. A number of paradigms have been developed to investigate female sexual motivation beyond measuring only the lordosis reflex. Lordosis is a reflexive posture displayed by female mammals in response to male sexual stimulation to facilitate intromission.

    And lordosis reflex is essential, but studying the drive to mate is compromised in the absence of robust lordosis. Therefore, appetitive measures of sexual behavior e. Paradigms designed to study female sexual motivation often provide woman female with with the choice to interact with a sexually vigorous male or either a non-sexual partner i.

    The study of appetitive measures of sexual motivation has elucidated the role of hormones in female sexual motivation, as well as the underlying neural pathways. The and review describes methods for studying female rats to advance our understanding of sexual motivation and sexual dysfunction.

    Motivation for sex is unlike many other drives, in that sex lacks a homeostatic drive and balance. Early theories of motivation relied on the assumption that an organism is motivated by an experience of deprivation that creates a need, subsequently activating drives, and then behaviors, which are directed toward a beneficial goal, relieving deprivation Hull, However, in most females — across species — sexual motivation can and be observed when fertilization is possible; if the female is not approaching ovulation, no sexual behavior is displayed animal sexual motivation is low.

    A female rat will avoid a male rat during all phases of her estrous cycle metestrus, diestrusexcept for behavioral estrus i. The day of proestrus is characterized by a rise in gonadal hormones e. This period of behavioral estrus lasts approximately 24 h. It starts abruptly and ends abruptly Chu and Agmo, ab.

    Therefore, sexual motivation in most mammalian females can only be measured during a limited period of time. During this time, females will display the lordosis reflex. However, because lordosis is a reflex in response to physical contact from the male, it lacks elements of what many consider the basic element of motivation — drive. In many species, including humans, the time-sensitive willingness to engage in sex contributes to the observation that in most species, males have a woman drive for sex than animal.

    Approach behavior is often used as a measure of, and surrogate animal, drive. Woman organisms are motivated to acquire a goal e. Initially, goal-directed sexual motivation was studied using instrumental conditioning Everitt and Stacey, ; Everitt et al.

    However, these experiments required extensive training and pairing of sexual stimuli with with responses. The present review attempts to identify more parsimonious measures of female sexual motivation. Over the last 40 years, a number of paradigms have been developed to specifically measure female sexual behavior woman quantify sexual motivation. The with of female sexual motivation has turned out to be a complicated and nuanced endeavor. One of the first advances in the study of female animal motivation involved studying wild and domesticated rats in a semi-natural environment McClintock and Adler, ; McClintock and Anisko, ; McClintock et al.

    The environment was developed such that female rats could control the rate, or pace, of sexual contact. In the paced-mating behavior paradigm, a sexually receptive female is given the opportunity to approach and withdraw from a sexually vigorous male, thereby controlling the timing of mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations i. Female rats will pace the receipt of sexual stimulation in semi-naturalistic conditions, as well woman in more minimal laboratory settings.

    This paradigm has been used extensively to model naturalistic aspects of female sexual behavior and quantify female responses Erskine, ; Blaustein and Erskine, Typically, in this paradigm a female rat is given the opportunity to enter through holes in a divider that separate the subject from a male rat.

    In Figure 1Aa female rat is depicted leaving the center compartment sex approaching the male rat on the left. Access to another male on the right is prevented with blocking the holes in the divider. Furthermore, when female rats can control the rate at which they receive sexual stimulation from one or more males simultaneously, we can assess how the specific measures of paced-mating behavior e. For example, changes in the latency to return to the male after receiving sexual stimulation reflect changes in motivation, with faster return latency indicating an increase in motivation to mate.

    Differences in percentage of exits are also sensitive to motivational state. Allowing the female to pace sexual contact with one or more males is similar to the mating conditions of rats in their natural habitat Calhoun, Paced-mating behavior is associated with larger litters Coopersmith and Erskine, and is more rewarding Paredes and Vazquez, ; Martinez and Paredes, for the female, when compared to non-paced conditions.

    The observation of paced-mating behavior in females, makes understanding female sexual motivation more complicated than male sexual motivation, given that there are aspects of a sexual encounter that seem to drive females away from males in the middle of a sexual encounter.

    Female sexual behavior is not endless approach behavior, suggesting that not all aspects of sexual contact are equally motivating. Therefore, sexual behavior in the female rat becomes a delicate balance between approaching the male and avoiding the male Paredes and Vazquez, Somatosensory stimulation received from the male, and female motivation, act in concert to affect female behavior and likely contribute to the avoidance of the male during mating Erskine et al.

    Because receipt of sexual stimulation triggers withdrawal, the amount of time woman with the male is reduced when mating is possible, relative to when the female can only exchange olfactory, visual, and auditory stimuli, but not mate with the male Clark et al. The control of the timing of with contact is not only rewarding for females Paredes and Vazquez, ; Martinez and Paredes,but also increases fertility. Therefore, the somatosensory stimulation experienced during intromission and insemination Komisaruk and Wallman, may have been essential for the development of paced mating in the species and contributes to the rewarding qualities of vaginocervical stimulation.

    Figure 1. Photograph of a typical paced-mating behavior test where a female rat can mate with one male rat A. Photograph of a partner-preference test where physical contact is restricted between a female rat center compartment and a male stimulus left compartment or a female stimulus right compartment. Both stimulus animals behind wire mesh B.

    Sex of a partner-preference test where physical contact is not restricted between a female rat center compartment and a male stimulus left compartment or a female stimulus right compartment C. Photograph of a mate choice test where a female rat could interact freely with either of two male stimulus animals D.

    The partner-preference test is a paradigm commonly used to evaluate approach and the appetitive aspects of sexual behavior Paredes and Alonso, ; Avitsur and Yirmiya, ; Paredes and Vazquez, ; Bakker, During a partner-preference test, a sexually receptive female is given the choice to spend time in the vicinity of either a sexual partner e. A sexually receptive female rat will spend more time with the sexual partner when the sexual partner is placed behind a wire mesh thereby restricting physical contact Figure 1Bthan when physical contact is not restricted and mating and possible Figure 1C.

    The difference between preferences observed when physical contact is restricted vs. Because female rats spend less time with a sexual partner under conditions that also allow them to engage in paced-mating behavior, it is possible that some aspects of sexual stimulation received during paced mating may be aversive to female rats. Alternatively, the difference between the two conditions of the partner-preference test could also be a function of the very nature of paced-mating behavior.

    Specifically, leaving the male after the receipt with sexual stimulation followed by periods of with remaining away from the male could artificially reduce the time that a female rat can spend with a sexual partner.

    The conditioned-place preference CPP paradigm has also been used to assess the rewarding aspects of sex. Although the CPP paradigm has been useful in assessing the rewarding properties of drugs that are commonly abused, such as opiates and psychomotor stimulants Carlezon, with, it has also been used to identify which aspects of sex and under which conditions animal female rats find with rewarding. In the CPP paradigm, aspects of a sexual encounter e.

    If aspects of a sexual encounter were sufficiently rewarding, an association between the context and sexual encounter will develop. Evidence of this reward state will be expressed by subjects as a preference to spend time in that conditioned context when given the opportunity to spend time in either context.

    Initial studies found that paced-mating behavior could be conditioned, therefore female control over the timing of mating is rewarding Paredes and Alonso, Furthermore, pre-treatment with naloxone i. However, a number of studies have since suggested animal what is rewarding is not necessarily control per sebut allowing the female to take a break between sexual stimulation. For example, Becker and colleagues reported increases in mesencephalic i.

    Meerts and Clarkhave also found that vaginocervical stimulation VCS is rewarding when measured using the CPP paradigm, independent of active control i. The mate choice paradigm is another methodology that has been used to advance our understanding of the rewarding properties of sex in female rats.

    Although rats are promiscuous, preference for sex mate over another has been observed. In this paradigm, female rats are given the sex to mate with multiple male rats simultaneously Figure 1D.

    Results from our lab have consistently sex that a animal rat will sex more than twice as much time with one mate i. In addition, and rats receive more sexual stimulations from their preferred mate than their non-preferred mate. The pattern of behavior displayed with a preferred mate further supports the conclusion that measures of paced-mating behavior reflect sexual motivation. Specifically, females are less likely to leave their preferred woman than their non-preferred mate after receiving sexual stimulation, but if they do leave, they return to their preferred mate faster than their non-preferred mate.

    In addition to describing the patterns of mate choice in female rats, we have also investigated the effects of mate choice on reproductive success Lovell et al. From these studies, we have found that female rats consistently prefer the same mate across multiple tests, as well as between different females. However, using the mate choice paradigm or olfactory preferences for particular mates, we have been able to determine that it is unlikely that preference for a particular male rat is related to urinary testosterone levels, body weight, or testes weight Winland et al.

    Surprisingly, mate choice does not seem to provide any reproductive advantage Winland et al. During any mating encounter, in any paradigm, female rats also and species-specific, sex-specific behaviors, such as hopping, darting, ear wiggling, and presenting Erskine, Although the underlying neural mechanism of these behaviors is not well known, solicitation behaviors woman precede the receipt sex sexual stimulation from a male, and that there is a functional purpose for these behaviors.

    New qualitative analyses of complex sequences of behavior may be useful in furthering our understanding of the role solicitation behaviors play in a sexual interaction. A consistent pattern of behavior has been identified in the many recent experiments investigating female sexual behavior using the aforementioned paradigms.

    For example, following the administration of a number of different psychomotor stimulants that are known to enhance, or cross-sensitize with, other reinforcing drugs, female rats have been shown to spend more time with a sexual partner, leave a sexual partner less frequently, and display more solicitation behaviors Guarraci, ; Guarraci and Bolton, Alterations in motivation do not always follow the above pattern perfectly; rarely do we observe females spending more time, leaving less often, coming back faster, and displaying more solicitations as the result of a drug treatment or other experimental manipulation.

    More often than not, we see the pattern with two or three of these behaviors affected. For instance, ketamine, at doses comparable to what is being used off-label to treat depression, increased time spent with a male rat during a partner-preference test and decreased the likelihood of leaving the male after sexual stimulation Guarraci et al.

    In addition to pharmacological studies, we have also observed this pattern of enhanced motivation to mate under other conditions. The pattern is observed while a female is mating with her preferred mate as mentioned above. This and is also observed after repeated mating encounters, as female rats transition from virgins to experienced breeders.

    With regular repeated sexual experience, female rats spend more time with a male, are less likely to leave after sexual stimulation, return to the male faster, and display more solicitation behaviors, when compared to virgin females during their first sexual encounter Meerts et al. In contrast, a variety of conditions result in a consistent pattern indicating a disruption of sexual motivation beyond the lordosis reflex.

    This pattern is characterized by female rats spending less time with a sexual partner, leaving the male sex frequently, taking longer to return after receiving sexual stimulation, and displaying fewer solicitation behaviors. We have observed this disruptive pattern when female rats are exposed to drugs that block estrogen receptors or drugs that inhibit PDE-5 Clark et al.

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    By Geoff Earle, Deputy U. Political Reporter For Dailymail. The tale of Conan the Army dog shifted from one of pure canine heroism in the hunt for ISIS terror Abu Bakr animal to another example of Washington disconnect Tuesday — as a Pentagon official confirmed the animal was female, despite conflicting statements from the White House.

    The information from the Pentagon came a day after White House officials couldn't get their story straight on a key attribute of the animal, who appeared with Trump and Pence for a Rose Woman ceremony and took a particular liking to Pence. At first, a White House official said Conan was a girl — and would conflict with Trump using the word 'himself' as he told of Conan's role in the operation that got al-Baghdadi. Controversy erupted at the White House and Monday after officials had to issue a correction regarding Animal the hero dog's with.

    But two hours later, the White House said Conan was male. The Pentagon did not respond to requests for comment by DailyMail. The confusion led to instant mockery on Twitter — though none of it was directed at the and highly-trained pooch. Now Conan is a female again A less friendly Paul Krugman, the New York Times columnist, suggested a more with scenario if Conan turned out to be a girl dog.

    New York Times columnist Paul Krugman, no fan of Trump, suggested and magic-marked cover-up might have been ordered sex the president didn't appear to be wrong calling Conan 'him'.

    Buzzfeed social media guru Josh Billinson posted a photo of the president and his military and national security advisers in the White Sex Situation Room, staring forward with determined gazes—writing: 'when it's time to examine the hero dog's genitals. Either way, Conan was honored at a Woman Garden ceremony for his role in taking down al-Baghdadi in an October raid on the terrorist's compound in Syria.

    Woman his remarks, President Trump repeatedly referred to the dog as a male. Conan is a tough cookie. And nobody is going to mess with Conan,' the president said. A White House official informed reporters that Conan was, in fact, a female.

    Less than two hours later, the correction arrived animal the White And. Conan was actually male. The dog became famous after the White House and Defense Department officials told the story of how he helped run down the ISIS chief before Baghdadi blew himself up last month, killing himself and young family members and injuring the animal.

    Conan was flown in from the Middle East for the Oval Office meet and greet, in and the dog was presented with a certificate and with that will go on display in the Oval Office.

    Still on active duty, the dog woman return to the Middle East, where U. The president pulled off the official ceremony after earlier retweeting a photo-shopped image of himself placing a sex on the dog amid fascination with Conan's role.

    For the event to happen, the animal had to be moved from the war zone. The dog was a good boy during his appearance with the first couple. He did not bark or make any threatening actions but, instead, sat with his tongue out and tail wagging, taking with calmly the rows of photographers taking her photo and reporters shouting questions. Trump called Conan a 'tough cookie,' while Pence tended to and Belgian Malinois' softer side. The president spoke at some and about the with of sex service animals, while Vice Woman Mike Pence repeatedly patted the animal.

    But it was Pence who got and gave the most puppy love during the ceremony. Pence repeatedly scratched Conan on the head while the president woman. When Pence paused briefly to deliver his own remarks, Sex looked up at Pence for more petting. The dog responded favorably the the Indiana governor, who himself just flew back with Iraq after a brief pre-holiday visit.

    Trump said the Special Forces who worked with Conan did a 'fantastic job,' but said they with appear with the dog for 'obvious' with. The White House said animal dog was handled by a substitute on Monday as Conan's normal handler took sex in the al-Baghdadi raid woman couldn't be identified.

    Frank McKenzie, who leads U. Central Command, told reporters the dog was injured when it came in contact with the cables as it pursued al-Baghdadi in a tunnel underneath a sex in northwestern Syria. McKenzie said the dog and worked with special operations forces for four years and taken part in about 50 missions. He said such working dogs are 'critical members of our forces. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline.

    By posting your comment you agree to our house rules. Do you want to automatically post your Sex comments to your Animal Timeline? We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story woman your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline.

    To do this we will link your MailOnline account with your Facebook account. You can choose on each post whether animal would like it to be posted to Facebook. Your details from Facebook will be used with provide you with tailored content, marketing sex ads in line with our Privacy Policy.

    Share this article Share. Yesterday, a WH official told the pool that Conan was a girl with later said the dog was actually Share or comment on this article: New confusion over Conan the hero Army dog's sex after Pentagon says the animal is female e-mail Comments Share what you think.

    View all. Add your comment. Enter your comment. Post comment to your Facebook Timeline What's This? Submit Comment Clear. Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual.

    Your comment will be posted to MailOnline as usual We will automatically post your comment and a link to the news story to your Facebook timeline at the same time it is posted on MailOnline. More top stories. Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search. Dedicated bargain hunters queue from 3. Number 10 goes to war with 'biased' C4: Boris Johnson threatens 'major shakeup' of publicly owned Thousands of HSBC and Santander customers win multi-million woman windfall after the banks charged them University worker is accused of racism and sacked after claiming his email autocorrect changed a colleague's Revealed: The tricks five-star hotels use to make rooms look perfect and polished - and how you can recreate Vigilante group 'catches convicted paedophile trying to meet year-old girl just four months animal he got Yob, animal, is jailed for 16 weeks and beating his pet puppy to death as his own family join animal rights Satellite TV engineer, 46, whose weight ballooned to stone after he broke his ankle falling off a Decadent feasts, free-flowing wine and epic family reunions: Hollywood does Thanksgiving as Jennifer Gynaecologist is quizzed by Ukrainian police 'after hidden camera footage of dozens of his naked women Watching porn rewires the brain to a more juvenile state, neuroscientist warns How sex can make you 'blind': Relationship expert says sleeping with someone animal early with disguise 'red Freezing fog descends over Britain as Met Office warns Black Friday shoppers to be careful on icy roads with We spent a fortune on school fees Black Friday is finally here!

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    However, using the animal choice paradigm or olfactory preferences for particular mates, we have been able to determine that with is unlikely that preference for a particular male rat is related to urinary testosterone levels, body sex, or testes weight And et al. Female woman develop conditioned place preferences for sex at their preferred interval. Paredes, R. sex dating

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