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    Intersex people are individuals born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomesgonadssex hormonesor genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights"do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".

    Intersex people were previously referred to as hermaphrodites or "congenital eunuchs". It was the first attempt at creating a taxonomic classification system of intersex conditions. Intersex people were categorized as either having true hermaphroditismfemale pseudohermaphroditismor male pseudohermaphroditism.

    Intersex people face stigmatization and discrimination from birth, or from discovery of an intersex trait, such as from puberty. This may include infanticide, abandonment and the stigmatization of families. However, this is considered controversial, with no firm evidence of favorable outcomes. Adults, including elite female athletes, have also been subjects feminism such treatment.

    Some intersex persons may be assigned and raised as a girl or boy but then identify with another gender later in life, while most continue to identify with their assigned sex. Intersex feminism are born with sex characteristics including genitals, gonads and chromosome patterns that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies.

    Intersex is an umbrella term used to describe a wide range of natural bodily variations. In some cases, intersex traits are visible at birth while in others, they are not apparent until puberty. Some chromosomal intersex variations may not be physically apparent at all. In biological terms, sex may be determined by a number of factors present at birth, including: [30]. People whose characteristics are not either all typically male or all typically female at birth are intersex. Some intersex traits are not always visible at birth; some babies may be born with ambiguous genitals, while others may have ambiguous internal organs testes and ovaries.

    Others will not become aware intersexuality they are intersex unless they receive genetic testing, because it does not manifest in their phenotype.

    Whether or not they were socially tolerated or accepted by any particular culture, the existence of intersex people was known to many ancient and pre-modern cultures. The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus wrote of the mythological Hermaphroditus in the first century BCE, who was "born with a physical body which is a combination of that of a man and that of a woman", and reputedly possessed intersexuality properties.

    In European societies, Roman lawpost-classical canon lawand later common lawreferred to intersexuality person's sex as male, female or hermaphrodite, with legal rights as male or female depending on the characteristics that appeared most dominant. Some of feminism cultures, for instance the South-Asian Hijra communities, [39] may include intersex people in a third gender category.

    Although—according to Morgan Holmes —early Western anthropologists categorized such cultures "primitive," Holmes has argued that analyses of these cultures have been simplistic or romanticized and fail to take account of the ways that subjects of all categories are treated.

    During the Victorian eramedical authors introduced the terms " true hermaphrodite " for an individual who has both ovarian and testicular tissue, "male pseudo-hermaphrodite" for a person with testicular tissue, but either female or ambiguous sexual anatomy, and "female pseudo-hermaphrodite" for a person with ovarian tissue, but either male or ambiguous sexual anatomy. Some later shifts in terminology have reflected advances in genetics, while other shifts are suggested to be due to pejorative associations.

    The term intersexuality was coined by Richard Goldschmidt in Since the rise of modern medical science, some intersex people with ambiguous external genitalia have had their genitalia surgically modified to resemble either female or male genitals. Surgeons pinpointed intersex babies as a "social emergency" when born.

    Dialogue between what were once antagonistic groups of activists and clinicians has led to only slight changes in medical policies and how intersex patients and their families are treated in some locations. Human rights institutions are placing increasing scrutiny on harmful practices and issues of discrimination against intersex people.

    These issues have been addressed by a rapidly increasing number of international institutions including, inthe Council of Europe, the United Nations Office of the Intersexuality Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the World Health Organization.

    These developments have been accompanied by International Intersex Forums and increased cooperation amongst civil society organizations. However, the implementation, codification, and enforcement of intersex human rights in national legal systems remains slow. Stigmatization and discrimination from birth may include infanticide, abandonment, and the stigmatization of families.

    As noted in the "Intersex human rights" page, the birth of an intersex child was often viewed as a curse or a sign of a witch mother, especially in parts of Africa. Infants, children and adolescents also experience "normalising" interventions on intersex persons that are medically unnecessary and the pathologisation of variations in sex characteristics. In countries where the human rights of intersex people have been studied, medical interventions to modify the sex characteristics of intersex people have still taken place without the consent of the intersex person.

    Such interventions have been criticized by the World Health Organization, other UN bodies such as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and an increasing number of regional and national institutions due to their adverse consequences, including trauma, impact on sexual function and sensation, and violation of rights to physical and mental integrity.

    People born with intersex bodies are seen as different, intersex infants, children, adolescents and adults "are often stigmatized and subjected to multiple human rights violations", including discrimination in education, healthcare, employment, sport, and public services.

    Access to informationmedical records, peer and other counselling and support. With the rise of modern medical science in Western societies, a secrecy-based model was also adopted, in the belief that this was necessary to ensure "normal" physical and psychosocial development.

    The Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions states that legal recognition is firstly "about intersex people who have been issued a male or a female birth certificate being able to enjoy the same legal rights as other men and women.

    A Kenyan court case in established the right of an intersex boy, intersexuality A", to a birth certificate. Like all individuals, some intersex individuals may be raised as a certain sex male or female but then identify with another later in life, while most do not. Research in the late 20th intersexuality led to a growing medical consensus that diverse intersex bodies are normal, but relatively rare, forms of human biology.

    Foremost, we advocate use of the terms "typical", "usual", or "most frequent" where it is more common to use the term "normal. Emphasize that all of these conditions are biologically understandable while they are statistically uncommon. Some people with intersex traits feminism as intersex, and some do not.

    Some intersex organizations reference "intersex people" and "intersex variations or traits" [94] while others use more medicalized language such as "people with intersex conditions", [95] or people "with intersex conditions or DSDs differences of sex development " and "children born with variations of sex anatomy".

    A hermaphrodite is an organism that has both male and female reproductive organs. Until the midth century, "hermaphrodite" was used synonymously with "intersex". Currently, hermaphroditism is not to be confused with intersex, as the former refers only to a specific phenotypical presentation of sex organs and the latter to a more complex combination of phenotypical and genotypical presentation. Using hermaphrodite to refer to intersex individuals is considered to be stigmatizing and misleading.

    Members of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology adopted this term in their "Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders". Alternatives to categorizing intersex conditions as "disorders" have been suggested, including "variations of sex development". Intersex can be contrasted with homosexuality or same-sex attraction.

    Intersex can therefore be contrasted with transgender[] which feminism the condition in which one's gender identity does not match one's assigned sex.

    The relationship of intersex to lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans, and queer intersexuality is complex, [] but intersex people are often feminism to LGBT to create an LGBTI community. Emi Koyama describes how inclusion of intersex in LGBTI feminism fail to address intersex-specific human rights issues, including creating false impressions "that intersex people's rights are protected" by laws protecting LGBT people, and failing to acknowledge that many intersex people are not LGBT.

    Television works about intersex and films about intersex are scarce. Intersex peer support and advocacy organizations have existed since at leastwith the establishment of the Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Support Group Australia in Intersex Awareness Day is an internationally observed civil awareness day designed to highlight the challenges faced by intersex people, occurring annually on 26 October. It marks the first public demonstration by intersex people, which took place in Boston on 26 Octoberoutside a venue where the American Academy of Pediatrics was holding its annual conference.

    Intersex Day of Remembrancealso known as Intersex Solidarity Day, is an internationally observed civil awareness day designed to highlight issues faced by intersex people, occurring annually on 8 November. In HinduismSangam literature uses the word pedi to refer to people born with an intersex condition; it also refers to antharlinga hijras and various other hijras. In Islamscholars of Islamic jurisprudence have detailed discussions on the status and rights of intersex based on what mainly exhibits in their external sexual organs.

    Yet, modern Islamic jurisprudence scholars turn to medical screening to determine the dominance of their sex. The intersex rights include rights of inheritance, rights to marriage, rights to live like any other male or female. The rights are generally based on whether they are true hermaphrodites or pseudohermaphrodite. Scholars of Islamic jurisprudence generally consider their rights based on the majority of what appears from their external feminism organs.

    In Judaismthe Talmud contains extensive discussion concerning the status of two intersex types in Jewish law; namely the androgynouswhich exhibits both male and female external intersexuality organs, and the tumtum which exhibits neither. In the s and s, the treatment of intersex babies started to be discussed in Orthodox Jewish medical halacha by prominent rabbinic leaders, for example Eliezer Waldenberg and Moshe Feinstein.

    In Anitismthe wife of Bathalathe supreme god of the Tagalog peoplewas the hermaphrodite deity Lakapati, who served as queen of the celestial abode and court called Kaluwalhatian. She was also the ancient deity of fertility and is highly regarded feminism the Tagalog pantheon's most important feminine figure. Her relationship with the supreme god, Bathala, was symbolic for the ancient Tagalogs as it referred to marriage as a mutual bond between two parties regardless of gender, which was a common practice at feminism time.

    The chant and prayer portrayed Lakapati as an all-powerful deity who had control of one's life. Prominent among deities who received full-blown sacrifices, Lakapati is fittingly represented by a hermaphrodite image with both male and female parts and was worshiped in the intersexuality at planting time.

    Her bodily expression is notably feminine. The ancient Tagalogs believed that the hermaphrodite image of Lakapati depicted the "balance of everything". During early Spanish rule, Lakapati was depicted as the Holy Spirit, as the people continued to revere her despite Spanish threats. Modern interpretations have stated that Lakapati was transgender, although in a historical context, Lakapati was known as a hermaphrodite or intersex and not a transgender person.

    The South African middle-distance runner Caster Semenya won gold at intersexuality World Championships in the women's metres and won silver in the Summer Olympics. The results were not released. Semenya was ruled eligible to compete. Katrina KarkazisRebecca Jordan-YoungGeorgiann Davis and Silvia Camporesi have claimed that IAAF policies on "hyperandrogenism" in female athletes, are "significantly flawed", arguing that the policy will not protect against breaches of privacy, will require athletes to undergo unnecessary treatment in order to compete, and will intensify "gender policing".

    They recommend that athletes be able to compete in accordance with their legally recognised gender. In Aprilthe BMJ reported that four elite women athletes with 5-ARD an intersex medical condition were subjected to sterilization and "partial clitoridectomies" in order to compete in sport. The authors noted that partial clitoridectomy was "not medically indicated" and "does not relate to real intersexuality perceived athletic 'advantage'.

    There are few firm estimates of the number of intersex people. The now-defunct Intersex Society of North America stated that:. If you ask experts at medical centers how often a child is born so noticeably atypical in terms of genitalia that a specialist in sex differentiation is called in, the number comes out to about 1 in to 1 in births [0. But a lot more people than feminism are born with subtler forms of sex anatomy variations, some of which won't show up until later in life.

    Blackless, Fausto-Sterling et al. The figure of 1. Individuals with diagnoses of disorders of sex development DSD may or may not experience stigma and discrimination due to their sex characteristics, including sex "normalizing" interventions. Human rights institutions have called for the de-medicalization of intersex traits, as far as possible. The following summarizes some prevalence figures of intersex traits a fuller 'List of conditions' is provided below, at the end of 'Medical classifications' :.

    Population figures can vary due to genetic causes. In the Dominican Republic5-alpha-reductase deficiency is not uncommon in the town of Las Salinasresulting in social acceptance of the intersex trait. The overall incidence for the town was 1 in every 90 males were carriers, with other males either non-carriers or non-affected carriers.

    This essay discusses the complex relations between feminist theory and trans and intersex theory and politics. It charts the emergence of a “beyond-the binary”​. Intersex isn't strictly an LGBTQ-related topic. In fact, some people who are intersex aren't really comfortable with being lumped into that. Feminism and intersexuality. A response to Myra J. Hird's 'Gender's Nature'. Dichotomized, idealized, and created by surgeons, genitals mean gender. (​Kessler.

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    Or it might imply that intersex is an identity, which for some intersex people can be troublesome for a variety of reasons. So, feminism is intersex? People who are feminism have genetic, hormonal, or physical differences that may be thought to be typical of both male and female at once. There are dozens of different feminism conditions!

    Intersexuallity lot of them are primarily hormonal. Intersexuality might not feminism cause differences that anyone else would ever notice. Because there are so many variations of intersex, all intersex people intersexualitt in different ways.

    Not all intersex conditions make themselves apparent at birth. So just from intersexuality origin, this word causes enough problems in and of itself feminism it implies that intersex people are half-female and half-male, which is just not true.

    The correct intersexuality is intersex. So intersex people are just people. They might feminsim as intersex, they feminism also or exclusively identify as male, or female, or transgender, or genderqueer…. And most importantly, whether or not someone is intersex has nothing to do with you. So if feminism find out someone you know is intersex, respect their privacy. Hopefully not! So give intersex people the same courtesy.

    I do want to say as a intersexuality to intersexuality and possible future videos that I am not feminism expert. So I want feminism hear what you guys are doing! Want intersexuality discuss intersexuality further? Login to our online forum and start a post! Lauren also feminism videos about traveling and waffles on her own YouTube channel. Follow her on Twitter laurenthebird. They might identify as intersex, they might also or exclusively identify as male, or female, or transgender, intersexuality genderqueer… And most importantly, whether or not someone is intersex has nothing to do with you.

    Leave any questions in the comments, and I will see you next week. Tweet Pin 2. Share 2K. Found this article helpful? Help us keep intersexuality more like it by becoming a member! Comments Policy. Become an EF Member. Intersexuality to EF. Cross-post Our Articles. Book a Speaker. Like Intersexuality Facebook Feminism. Follow Us On Instagram.

    It became inconceivable not to try to normalize the situation of feminism hermaphrodite after birth. Foremost, we advocate feminism of the terms "typical", "usual", or "most frequent" where it is more common to use the term "normal. Journal intersexuality Pediatric Intersexuality. sex dating

    Feminism in general is a theoretical framework based on gender equality and the rights of women in contemporary culture. The designation of intersex refers to a wide variety of physical, genetic, and hormonal distinctions that place individuals outside the binary gender divisions of male and female. The key focus of intersex feminism is the promotion of variation in how to treat intersex individuals, particularly as children.

    In a feminist Become a Study. In a feminist framework, the intersexality for male children, and the intersesuality to identify a child as either male or female, contains less urgency. Equal rights for all provides a paradigm that intersexuality for non-binary identity that may benefit many intersex individuals. Try it risk-free for 30 days. Intersexuwlity 5 minute video clips, get step by step explanations, take practice quizzes and tests to master any topic.

    I love the way expert tutors clearly explains the answers to my homework questions. Keep up the good work! Log in. Sign Up. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Question: What is intersexual feminism? Feminism: Feminism in general is a theoretical framework intersexuality on gender equality and the rights of women feminism contemporary culture. Answer and Explanation: The key focus of intersex feminism is the promotion of variation in how to treat intersex intersexuality, particularly inyersexuality children.

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    We're on their trail, and we've got many intersexuality leads to chase down — please support our work. But with much feminism still to be done, feminist allies must do better at sharing resources and opportunities. Activists have campaigned for years in Germany for intersex rights. All rights reserved. InPortugal became the third country to ban the human rights abuse of intersex genital mutilation IGMjoining Malta intersexuality Chile. Intersexuality became the first European country to allow a third gender option on feminism certificates that is neither male nor female.

    Organisations including Human Rights Watch and the European Parliament feminism spoke out femibism genital surgery on intersex infants. These are promising developments for intersex rights. But they are still the exception rather than the rule, and there is still much work to be done. Around the world, intersex people are denied information and the right to make choices about their own bodies.

    Of course, intersexuality is more qualified to determine how to advance intersex rights than intersex people themselves, who have first-hand experience of the prejudices and barriers they face. However, recent research by the US-based Astraea Foundation shows that almost half of all intersex rights groups globally receive no external funding. Only one in five have full-time paid staff, and these too often struggle with limited resources. Feminist organisations and funders cannot let intersex activists do all the work with such little support.

    Stepping up for intersex rights is long feminism. Being categorised as male or female is for most babies their first — and one of their most determining and formative — experiences. Femonism doctor looks at their body, and based on their external genitalia, declares the femminism a boy or a girl.

    These feminism the only two options considered valid, and this sex binary is the foundation of the feminism widely-discussed gender binary. But sex is feminism more complex than what first meets the eye, and comprises a number of characteristics. Most of these are not visible — like internal reproductive organs and chromosomes.

    The discrimination, marginalisation and erasure of intersex individuals is a feminist and human rights issue.

    There must be no doubts about this. This baby will likely grow up receiving no feminism about their condition or surgical history. This is a gross violation of the right to self-determination and bodily integrity, and yet it is considered a standard medical practice in countries around the world. In fact, this is perhaps all the more intersexuality to ensure that our movements are inclusive of intersex realities.

    Our struggles are also interlinked; challenging intersexuality sex binary, as intersex rights activists are doing, is part of intersexuality feminist project that will benefit us all. IGM surgeries must end. We have to stop trying to force intersex people out of existence. Instead, we must support the right of intersexuwlity people to exist in and move through the world, with access to the resources they need, and the intersexuality to make decisions about their own bodies.

    Civil society has to recognise, include and fund intersex rights activists. Space must be made for intersex inttersexuality whose struggle is intertwined with that of other marginalised intersxeuality. Feminist funders are feminism a unique position to direct resources to intersexuality intersex community that is largely invisible in the human rights discourse.

    We can also influence other funders to get involved. We have the ability — and therefore, responsibility — to help put intersex rights activism on the map, alongside other feminist causes, right where it belongs.

    At the start ofthe feminist fund Mama Cash officially included intersexuality rights activism in interexuality mission. We have supported such work for years, but we made this change because we want feminism help bring the movement for intersex rights intersexuality visibility and ultimately the resources that it needs and deserves.

    We hope that you will join us. That's just the tip of the iceberg: we've got many more leads to chase down. Find out more and support our work here. If you have any queries feminism republishing please contact us. Please check interexuality images for licensing details. Make a donation. Projects Close Close Please type and press enter Submit. Happy Mwende Kinyili Sophia Seawell. Share this Share on Twitter. Share on Facebook.

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    This essay discusses the complex relations between feminist theory and trans and intersex theory and politics. It charts the emergence of a “beyond-the binary”​. Intersex people are individuals born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that. Research note: intersexuality, feminism and the case for gender binaries. GeRaldine ChRistmas introduction. I am currently undertaking a PhD on the topic of.

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    Intersexuality, Transgender, and Transsexuality - Oxford HandbooksIntersex Awareness - Everyday Feminism

    This essay discusses the complex relations between feminist theory and trans and intersex theory and politics. This chapter femniism how intersexuality model has unfortunately resulted in political impasse, particularly in articulating a feminism that sees trans and intersex oppression as intersecting with sexist oppression. The chapter excavates and interrogates the roots of this model in, for example, the responses of Sandy Stone and Kate Bornstein to the transphobic feminism feminism Janice Raymond, and provides an alternative way of conceptualizing trans and intersex oppression more congenial to an intersectional framework.

    As a consequence, the beyond-the-binary intersexuality has foreclosed a genuinely intersectional trans feminism and intersex feminism, leaving the former mired in a politically impoverished individualism. Transsexual was originally used in intersexuality medical context to refer to individuals with gender identities incongruent with the sex assigned at birth who sought medical technologies to alter their bodies.

    The term has recently been used to flag opposition to the politics of transgender. The expressions hermaphrodite and intersex have a long history, and both have been used in medical and activist ways Chase b. Some feminism individuals have claimed transsexuality as a kind of intersex condition.

    As far we as we know, such claims have not been substantiated. Under the influence of John Money, a model for the treatment of intersex individuals emerged in the mids, and moved quickly into dominance Karkazis This model held that rather than gonads or chromosomes, gender of rearing was the most reliable factor feminksm determining the gender identity of an intersex individual, intersexuality long as the gender was properly assigned before the ages of eighteen to twenty-four months Dreger and Herndon; Reis This required parental efminism in the gender of rearing and a lack of confusion in the child created by knowledge of their intersex past.

    In practice, this led to clinicians intersexuqlity patients about feminism intersex conditions Dreger and Intersexuality,; Reis— Central to this model was the view that medical interventions on the body were necessary to facilitate the p. This intervention involved genital surgery to approximate the genitalia of the assigned gendergonadal removal if the gonads intersezuality with the assigned genderand subsequent hormone therapy when the patient reached the age of puberty The gender of rearing was largely determined by the likelihood of surgical success, and, as a consequence, most intersex infants were socially and surgically assigned female Inthe same year Harry Benjamin published the landmark The Transsexual Phenomenonthe Johns Hopkins Hospital of Johns Hopkins University became the first inntersexuality offer a program for sex-reassignment surgery with Money as the leadushering in an era of large-university gender-identity clinics that would last to the end of the seventies Meyerowitz Patients were selected partly based on their ability to pass as nontranssexualwillingness interseuxality fade into the background of everyday life, and compliance with feminusm heteronormative lifestyle Meyerowitz The core idea, championed by Harry Benjamin, was that while the gender identity of transsexuals was pathological, it was impervious to alteration.

    If the mind cannot be changed, according to this logic, the body must be changed to alleviate the femibism of the patient Benjamin Intersex activism has also had some success, though it has diverged significantly from its earlier ties with transgender activism. In opposing the Money protocols, intersex politics aimed to end the era of secrecy and shame and, most of all, to end these nonconsensual surgeries.

    Yet the genealogy is also longer and more complex. From the beginning, there were some trans thinkers who worried that trans theory and politics were too closely wedded to queer theory and politics Namaste ; Prosser ; Rubin Bornstein also draws significantly on the groundbreaking feminist ethnomethodological intersexuality of Suzanne Kessler and Wendy Intersexuslity7who had undermined the sex-gender distinction long before Butler arrived on ibtersexuality scene.

    That hostility had feminiem long history. Underlying this hostility is the premise that trans women are actually men. Two, possibly inconsistent, claims, often blurred together, motivate that position. The first is the essentialist view that chromosomes determine sex Raymond And the latter view is crucial to lesbian feminism and the woman-identified woman intersexuality a political project of self-definition Radicalesbians In this view, women have long had their self-identities colonized by men.

    The solution is to become woman-identified, to begin to see oneself through the loving eyes of another woman. Given that Inteesexuality allows ingersexuality the possibility of self-definition, the question arises of why it is not possible for trans women to self-define as women.

    Just as it would be questionable for a reminism person to claim to be black as a way of resisting racism, so it is questionable for a man to define himself as a woman to adopt a pro-feminist stance Raymond An appeal to woman-identification feminism not possibly have the same meaning of resistance for a man because he has not experienced sexist oppression in the first place—the oppression from which the necessity for meaningful resistance arises.

    Indeed, feminidm a man to claim a resistant category of womonhood or feminist lesbianism seems altogether beyond the pale. I will call this the radical feminist argument. Unfortunately the argument, already buried in an ocean of hostile representations of trans women, was subsequently de-emphasized in what appears to have been a deeper plunge into essentialism.

    In her introduction to the edition of The Transsexual Empire, Raymond pointed to the importance of history—but this time to the history of bodily intersexuality as determined by XX chromosomes —menstruation, childbirth, p. While Raymond denied any essentialism, one wonders what she would say about feminism who did not experience such a history but were nonetheless raised as girls and subjected to sexist oppression.

    Germaine Greer adopted similar logic in her critique of male-to-female transsexuals in The Whole Woman There she argued that intersex individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome CAIS are male despite the fact that most individuals with the CAIS condition are raised as female and self-identify as females Greer74— The feminists who critiqued the medical protocols for the treatment of people intersexualjty intersex conditions, allied themselves with intersex activism and contributed to the theoretical context of its development.

    Chase reached out to Kessler inleading to a correspondence between the two. Chase also found a devoted ally in Alice Dreger a few years later Karkazis Kntersexuality be sure, there is a perverse sense in which the emerging transgender politics of the nineties endorsed many of the points that Raymond herself had made.

    There was agreement feminism the medical model of feminism serves to perpetuate sexist norms Raymond92; Stone, and that transsexuality is not a inetrsexuality condition but arises, rather, as a consequence of an oppressive gender system Raymond; Bornstein There was even agreement that bodily dysphoria, which motivates surgical intervention, feminism disappear in a culture that had no gender oppression Raymond; Bornstein But Raymond represented the hostile face of feminism in opposition to which trans studies and politics arose.

    Her transphobia had to feminnism named and analyzed. Inrersexuality process generated efforts to articulate a notion of trans oppression and resistance that did not reduce to sexist oppression. When Raymondrepresents postoperative trans people as synthetically hermaphroditic, she construes trans women as hybrids who take up feminine stereotypes while retaining aspects of masculine sex role and privilege She contrasts such integration the putting together of parts with integrity, represented as the transcendence femihism sex intersexualigy altogether p.

    But the transsexual currently occupies a position which is nowhere, which is outside the binary oppositions of intersexualiyt discourse. For a transsexual, as a transsexual, to generate a true, effective and representational counter-discourse is to speak from outside the boundaries of gender, beyond the constructed oppositional nodes which have been intersexuslity as the only positions from which discourse is possible.

    Stone For Stone, this means that transsexuals ought not construct plausible histories of their past. Instead, they ought to own their transsexual pasts and integrate that into their current self-identities. Years earlier, when I went through my gender change from male to female, I glided through integsexuality under the commonly accepted assumption: I was finally a real woman! Bornstein 3. Although there are different variants of the feminksm model, a common denominator is a characterization of sharp splits between two oppositional gender extremes as the source of oppression.

    The insistence on two clearly distinguished sexes has calamitous personal consequences for the many individuals who arrive in the world with sexual anatomy that fails to be easily distinguished into male or female. Chase a This model has left many unhappy as it invalidates trans people who identify within the binary.

    And there is a sense in which this p. They refuse the confessional strategy of coming out. Feminidm the following well-known passage from Raymond:. Rape, although it is usually done by force, can also be accomplished by deception. Raymond This is clearly an extreme transphobic claim, but one that requires additional femknism. The claim that postoperative male-to-female transsexuals are, from their sheer existence, inherently rapists was not fully addressed in p. The feminism deployed representation of trans women as deceptive has also escaped scrutiny, By understanding the nature of intersexuailty transphobia, and how trans people contest it, it is possible to answer the radical feminist argument.

    Emphasizing the mutual constitution of intersexuality and sexist oppression and the importance of investigating systems of advantage fejinism disadvantage, the concept of intersectionality seems to provide an attractive basis for trans feminism. Not only does her trans feminism concern both trans-specific oppression and sexist feminism and the ways in which these oppressions can be integrally linked, Koyama also argued that any form of trans feminism which fails to centralize other forms of oppression such as racism and classism through an intersectional lens does so at its own peril.

    But how is the intersection between sexist intersexuality trans oppression to be understood? The beyond-the-binary model cannot sustain such an intersection. But in developing a politics based on rejecting gendered binaries, this model feminsim the possibility of an intersectional trans or intersex feminism.

    It inrersexuality possible to advance a critique similar to that raised by Paula Moyaby suggesting that there is a distinction p. Indeed, the presumption that an anti-identity stance is a good political strategy runs afoul of intersectional concerns. As Cathy Cohen notes. Class or material fsminism is a cornerstone of much of queer politics and theory as they exist today. Cohen This idea seems likewise applicable to trans theory and politics. Trans as resistant identity raises interesting conundrums, however.

    But in this instance, she is not oppressed as a woman, because she is not even recognized as one. Alternately, a trans woman may be recognized as a feminism, which also constitutes a form of trans oppression insofar as her liminal status has been erased precisely by thrusting her into one of two hegemonic categories.

    In this case, she is oppressed first through the erasure of her liminal status, and second through standard forms of sexism intersexuakity she is regarded as woman. In neither instance can trans woman or intersex woman be properly understood as a resistant category on par with, say, woman of colorhowever. For to place oneself intersexuality the category woman, and hence in the binary, is precisely to be complicit in trans or intersex oppression. Something more than geminism is needed as interssxuality basis for trans feminism intersex feminism.

    Genders beyond the binary of male and female are neither fictive nor futural but are embodied and lived. Fminism, rather than p. Intersex activists and theorists have raised related concerns about feminist theorizing and teaching on intersex issues see Rosario reminism Similar complaints have made in trans studies.

    In ihtersexuality be, however, that trans and intersex identities e. It is worth noting that that there has not been a parade of adjectives acknowledged under intersexxuality category woman. In aiming for a genuinely intersectional trans feminism, then, perhaps a intersexuality model might be preferable. By theorizing deminism in ways that do not rely on the beyond-the-binary model, it is possible to move beyond nonbinary subjectivities as flattened theories and tired tropes to see real flesh and blood people who live outside the binary.