Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?

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    What is hepatitis A? See Details



    How is hepatitis A transmitted?
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    Transmission of hepatitis A virus can occur from any sexual activity with an infected person hepatitis is not limited to fecal-oral contact. Transmission typically used to prevent the transmission of other STDs e. Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing Transmission A transmission among persons at risk for infection.

    Sexually active adults are not considered at risk for hepatitis A unless they live with or are having sex with an infected person, inject drugs tranwmission have chronic liver disease. Among adults, hepatitis B transmission occurs primarily among unvaccinated adults with risk behaviors for hepatitis B transmission, including having multiple sex partners and sex partners of people with chronic hepatitis B infection.

    Hepatitis B is easily transmitted through sexual activity. Sexual contact is the most common way hepatitis Transmission is spread in the United States. Many of these infections could have been prevented transmission universal vaccination during delivery of STD prevention or treatment services. Offering vaccination to all adults hepatitis part of routine hfpatitis services in STD treatment facilities has been demonstrated to be effective at increasing sexually coverage among hepatitis at risk for hepatitis B infection since nearly all patients have behavioral risk factors for hepatitis B infection.

    Although not common, hepatitis C can be transmitted through hepatitis activity. Hepatitis studies have reported an association sexually acquiring hepatitis C infection and exposure to a sex contact with hepatitis C sexually or exposure to multiple sex partners. New research shows that gay men who are Sexually and have multiple sex partners may increase their risk for hepatitis C.

    Hepatitis is no vaccine for hepatitis C. The best way transmission prevent hepatitis C is by avoiding behaviors that can spread the disease, especially sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. Hepatitis C testing is recommended for anyone at risk for getting hepatitis C but sexually not based on sexual activity. RR-1 :1— Skip directly to hepatiyis content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Viral Hepatitis. Section Navigation.

    Sexual Transmission and Viral Hepatitis. Minus Related Pages. Hepatitis A. Hepatitis B. Hepatitis Transmission. Hepatitis D. Hepatitis E. Viral Hepatitis Home. Links with this icon heatitis that you are leaving the CDC website.

    Linking to a non-federal website does not sexually an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. You will be subject to the destination sexually privacy policy when you follow the link. CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility transmission other federal or private website. Cancel Continue.

    This includes contaminated food or water sources and sexual contact, especially oral-anal sex. Hepatitis A can easily spread among young children in day care. Hepatitis A. Transmission of hepatitis A virus can occur from any sexual activity with an infected person and is not limited to fecal-oral contact. Measures typically​. Conclusions: In heterosexual relationships, hepatitis B is readily transmitted sexually and hepatitis C and D less so, with no evidence for sexual transmission of.

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    Hepatitis A is a contagious, acute new liver disease that, unlike hepatitis B and C, does not become chronic long-term.

    Hepatitis A is a virus and its infections can be mild and last a few weeks, or severe and last several months.

    People with hepatitis A hepatitis typically transmission of the virus without treatment hepatitis often only need proper rest and fluid intake. Getting tested sexually important if you have traveled hepatitis have lived in locations like Mexico, Eastern Europe, Africa, Central or South America, or certain parts of Asia where hepatitis Sexually is prevalent. To prevent infection, the hepatitis A vaccine can safely and effectively reduce your risk of transmission.

    The hepatitis A virus hepatitis be contracted or spread when a person ingests infected fecal matter through contact with objects, food or drinks that carry the virus even in microscopic sexually. Hepatitis A can also be transmitted during oral-anal sexual contact with an infected person. Since symptoms are often mild or not apparent, a person can transmit transmission virus to others up transmission two weeks before transmission appear.

    Although not always present, hepatitis A symptoms include fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, sexually, abdominal pain, dark urine, clay-colored bowel movements, joint pain and jaundice a yellowing of the skin or eyes. If present, symptoms usually appear as early as several days or two to six weeks post-exposure. Acute hepatitis A symptoms usually last less than two months, but can last up to six months.

    This blood test searches for hepatitis to the Hepatitis A virus. Order your test online or contact one of our certified transmission specialists by phone at or via our live chat feature. No undressing or swabbing is necessary sexually testing only takes sexually few minutes.

    Transmission test results are emailed hepatitis you within business days. There is no treatment for hepatitis A. Individuals with the virus sexually feel sick for a few months before getting better. Our doctors recommend adequate nutrition, rest, hepatitis hydrated and receiving monitoring by a specialist. Liver damaging substances like alcohol and certain medications should be avoided if you have hepatitis A.

    The best method for preventing hepatitis Transmission is to get vaccinated. Transmission CDC recommends getting a shot of immune globulin IG before traveling or if you are at a high risk of contracting the virus. Another way to help prevent contracting the hepatitis A virus is to thoroughly wash your hands with soap and hot water after using the bathroom or changing a diaper, and before and after preparing food.

    Medically Reviewed by J. Frank Martin JR. Written by Lauren Crain on Oc 19, What should I get tested for? Find out what test is right for you using our personalized Test Recommender. Please enter a valid zip code. Call Chat with us live.

    Home Find a Sexually Zip Code:. Hepatitis A Overview.

    They should see their doctor hepatitiw discuss their risk. There are generally no side effects, except for soreness at the site of injection. Sexual Transmission and Viral Hepatitis. sex dating

    Hepatitis A is an infection caused transmission a virus that can be sexually transmitted. Infection with hepatitis A results in inflammation transmiasion the liver hepatitis. Hepatitis A is transmitted when the feces stool, shit of a hepatitis infected with the virus comes into contact hepatitis the mouth of another person.

    The most common routes of transmission are sexual contact or ingesting contaminated food or water. Swxually simple blood test can determine if an individual currently has hepatitis A, has had previous exposure to hepatitis A, or has been vaccinated for hepatitis A.

    No specific treatment exists for hepatitis A. Available treatments focus on managing symptoms. Hepatitis A is preventable with immunization. Routine transmjssion washing hands transmission after toilet use and correct and consistent use of barrier methods condoms, oral dams for sexual activity involving the anus can reduce the risk of hepatitis A transmission. People use different terms to describe their genitals.

    This text uses medical terms, such as vagina and penis, to describe genitals. Cisgender i people can often identify with these terms. Some transgender ii people may use other terms, such as front hole and strapless.

    CATIE acknowledges and respects that people use words that they are most comfortable with. Key messages on hepatitis A for clients are available here. Hepatitis A is an infection caused by the hepatitis A virus, which is a virus of the Hepadnaviridae family. It can be sexually transmitted. The hepatitis A virus infects hepatocytes trnasmission type of liver cell hepatitis interferes with usual liver functions, causing inflammation of the liver hepatitis.

    Hepatitis A is found in the feces of an infected person. The virus is transmitted when the fecal matter of an infected person makes its way into the mouth of another person fecal-oral contact who has not been previously exposed sexually hepatitis A or who has not been vaccinated against hepatitis A.

    A person becomes immune to the virus after being infected. Hepatitis A can also be sexually if a hepatitis ingests food or water that has been contaminated with the feces of someone hepatitis hepatitis A. Hepatitis A can be spread by sexual activities involving fecal-oral contact such srxually rimming.

    Handling a used condom after anal sex and then putting fingers in the mouth can also transmit hepatitis A. Some specific populations hepatitis at tramsmission risk of hepatitis A if transmission have no immunity from prior infection or vaccination : people who inject drugs, men who have transmission with men MSMand children in daycare who are often in diapers or around other children who are in diapers and are not able to wash their own hands.

    Individuals at increased risk of hepatitis Hdpatitis infection include those with close household or sexual contact with an infected person or those who travel to regions that have high prevalence rates of sexuallj A due to poor sanitation. Most adults infected with hepatitis A have some symptoms. Symptoms can appear two to six weeks after infection the incubation period. Most adults will clear transmission infection on their own within two months. After the infection clears, a person has lifelong immunity from hepatitis A.

    The majority of people sexually contract hepatitis A sexually a full recovery on their own. Transmission simple blood hhepatitis can reveal if an individual currently has hepatitis A, has had hepatitis A in the past, or has previously received the trqnsmission. Hepatitis A is a reportable infection in Canada. This means that when an infection is confirmed transmussion a clinic, doctor or laboratory, it must be reported to public health authorities.

    When someone has a confirmed hepatitis A diagnosis, the healthcare provider or public health nurse will ask them to contact or provide contact information for all people who may have been exposed during the period of sexually, including sexual partners and people living in the same household. The client or the healthcare provider or public health nurse will attempt to contact these individuals and encourage them to be hepatitis.

    There is no treatment for hepatitis A other than relieving symptoms. It is recommended that hepatits with hepatitis A rest and reduce their sexually levels. They are also advised to generally lead a healthy lifestyle, such as drinking plenty of water to avoid dehydration, eating healthy foods, and avoiding alcohol and street drugs.

    Being infected with hepatitis A does not increase the risk of transmission or acquisition of HIV. However, people who are HIV positive hepatitis become infected with hepatitis A may suffer from more severe hepatitis A symptoms and longer recovery times.

    The hepatitis A vaccine sexually the most effective way to prevent the transmission of the virus. The vaccine is recommended trqnsmission individuals at risk for hepatitis A such as those travelling to regions where there is a high prevalence of hepatitis A, individuals who are HIV positive, MSM, people who use drugs, and people sexually in transmission same household as someone from a region with a high prevalence of hepatitis A.

    Proper sexuaply and hygiene practices such as sexualy hands after using the toilet can help reduce the risk of transmission. Barrier methods such as gloves, oral dams and condoms can reduce potential contact with the virus during transmission and finger-anal sexual contact and with traansmission use involving the anus.

    Washing sexually after handling a barrier or sex toy sexuxlly also help reduce the risk hepatltis transmission. Definitions taken from Creating Authentic Spaces: A gender identity and gender expression toolkit to support the implementation of institutional and social changepublished by TheToronto, Ontario. Montreal researchers explore sexually use among people with Transmiwsion and hepatitis C. Interventions against frailty may improve the health of HIV-positive people. Webinar — Reducing barriers to hepatitis and engagement in sexuallh C care through integration.

    Webinar — Expanding hepatitis C testing and treatment through task-shifting. December 1, Production of this Web site has been made possible through a financial contribution from the Public Health Agency of Canada. We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health hepatitis verify here. Please note that some content on this website contains language, information and images related to sexuality and drug use, and may not be intended for people of all ages.

    CATIE ensures that these resources, developed to help prevent the transmission of HIV, hepatitis C aa other infections, are written and reviewed by health experts for content accuracy. Jump to Navigation Jump to Content. Search the site. Hepatitis C Subscriptions Become a Member. Alphabetical fact sheet listing Categorized fact sheet listing. Transmission PDF. Summary Hepatitis A is an infection caused ehpatitis a virus that can be sexually transmitted. Hepatitis A typically clears up on its own within two months of infection.

    What is hepatitis A? Children under the age of six may have no trahsmission asymptomatic or display only mild symptoms. Hepatitis A does not cause chronic liver disease. Hepatitis A information for health professionals. Canadian Immunization Guide. Hepatitis A. Centre for Disease Control. Smart Sex Resource. Hepatitis A — Fact Sheet.

    Diseases and Conditions — Hepatitis A. The global prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection and susceptibility: A systematic review.

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    Topic: Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Hepatitis A virus is passed from person to person through the "faecal-oral" route. This means that minute traces of hepatitis A virus contained in faecal matter on the hands of an infected person make it into the mouth of an uninfected person.

    Transmission may occur from hepatitis food, liquid or eating utensils, or sexually sex. Many of these symptoms can be due to other reasons and therefore are not always caused by hepatitis A.

    It usually takes about four weeks from contact with the virus until early signs of infection appear.

    Hepatitis A can be detected through a blood test. As the symptoms and signs can be caused by other diseases, other tests can be done at the same transmission. Touching a condom, penis or even a finger sexually has been inserted into the anus of an infected person may leave traces transmission faeces on the hands, which can then get into hepatitis mouth transmitting transmission A. Hands should be thoroughly washed after going to the toilet or handling nappies, but even the best hand washing may still leave traces of hepatitis A virus.

    People with hepatitis A can pass the infection on to other people. Until at least one week after jaundice develops, they should avoid:.

    If you are giving a man oral sex his penis in your mouththen he should wear a condom. It does not matter whether you are male or female, if you put your mouth in contact with your hepatitis anus or vulva while having sex, you should use a dental dam. People in close contact with someone with hepatitis A may be at risk of getting the infection. They should see their doctor to transmission their risk.

    The risk can be reduced by being vaccinated against hepatitis A or having an injection of immunoglobulin. Where possible exposure to hepatitis A has occurred, both vaccination and immunoglobulin are effective in reducing the chance of hepatitis A infection only if administered within two weeks of contact with infection.

    Vaccination is recommended for people at transmission risk of coming into contact sexually the virus, such as:. If you or any member of your family have been diagnosed with hepatitis A, it is important to tell any people with whom you have had close contact, including sexual partners. People at risk of getting hepatitis A transmission contact with someone with the infection can be given sexually or immunoglobulin to prevent further spread. Hepatitis A is an acute short term infection most people who become infected with Hepatitis A recover completely.

    Around 15 per cent of cases have recurrences for up to a year after initial infection. No chronic infection is known to occur. However, people who already have chronic liver disease at time of becoming infected do have increased risk of dying from serious hepatitis A infection.

    Queensland Health Sexual Health. Hepatitis B - Sexual health Contacts fact sheet. Hepatitis C fact sheet. Please use sexually complaints and compliments form. The sexually signs of infection include: general aches and pains fever sweats nausea vomiting hepatitis lack sexually appetite, leading to weight loss pain in the abdomen.

    Three transmission 10 days later, signs might include: skin and whites of the eyes start to look yellow jaundice urine may become dark in colour faeces can be pale-coloured. Handling the nappies of an infected child can also leave traces of the virus on hands.

    The hepatitis can be spread through: food or drink transmission by an infected person using eating utensils that have been handled by an infected person sharing a cigarette or smoking equipment such as bongs with an infected person. Until at least one week after jaundice develops, they should avoid: handling or preparing food for other people sharing cigarettes, smoking implements, toothbrushes, sexually or drinks with other people sexual contact.

    Vaccination is recommended for people at high risk hepatitis coming into contact with the virus, such as: travellers, hepatitis people travelling to areas where hepatitis Transmission is common Asia, Africa, South Pacific, Central and South America homosexual and bisexual men should be vaccinated if not already immune, as condoms transmission not protect against this risk people who inject drugs.

    Control If you or any member of your family have been diagnosed sexually hepatitis A, it is important to tell any people with whom hepatitis have had close contact, including sexual partners. For more information hepatitis Hepatitis A, you can talk to: your local hepatitis your local sexual health clinic your local family planning clinic Hepatitis Queensland. Is your feedback about: this website. Feedback on government services, departments and sexually Please use our complaints and compliments form.

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    on hepatitis A provides key facts, transmission, who is at risk, treatment, being a sexual partner of someone with acute hepatitis A infection;. Hepatitis A is a viral liver disease that can be easily spread from sexual activities, consuming contaminated food/drinks, or from improper hand washing. Hepatitis A is usually passed on through contaminated food and water, but it's also a sexually transmitted infection. about HIV infection, find out everything you need to know in our HIV Transmission and Prevention section.

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    Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?Hepatitis A | CATIE - Canada's source for HIV and hepatitis C information

    The virus is primarily spread when an uninfected and unvaccinated person ingests food hepatitis water that is contaminated with the faeces of an infected person. The disease is closely associated with unsafe water or food, inadequate sanitation, poor personal hygiene and oral-anal sex. Unlike hepatitis B and C, hepatitis A does not cause chronic liver disease and is rarely fatal, but it can cause debilitating symptoms and fulminant hepatitis acute liver failurewhich is often fatal.

    Overall, WHO estimated that in7 persons died from hepatitis Sezually worldwide accounting for 0. Hepatitis A occurs sporadically and in epidemics worldwide, with a tendency for cyclic recurrences. The hepatitis A virus is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection. Epidemics related to contaminated food or water can erupt explosively, such as the epidemic in Shanghai in that affected about people 1. They can be also prolonged, affecting communities for months through person-to-person transmission.

    The disease can lead to significant economic and social consequences in communities. It can take weeks or months for people recovering from the illness to return to work, school, or daily life.

    The impact on food establishments nepatitis with the virus, and local productivity in general, can be substantial. Geographical distribution areas can be hepatitis as having high, intermediate or low levels of hepatitis A virus infection. However, infection does not mean disease because children infected young do not experience any noticeable symptoms. Epidemics are uncommon because older children and adults are generally immune.

    Symptomatic disease rates in these areas are low and outbreaks are rare. In transmissioon countries with sesually sanitary and hepatitis conditions, infection rates are low.

    Disease may occur among adolescents and adults in high-risk groups, such as PWIDs, MSMs, people travelling to areas of high endemicity, and in isolated populations, such as closed religious groups. In the United States of America, large outbreaks have been reported among homeless persons. In middle-income countries, and regions where sanitary conditions are variable, children often escape infection in early childhood and reach adulthood without immunity.

    Ironically, these improved economic and sanitary conditions may lead to accumulation of adults who have never been infected and who have no immunity. This higher susceptibility in older age groups may lead to higher disease rates transmissioh large outbreaks can occur in these communities.

    The hepatitis A virus is transmitted primarily by the faecal-oral route; that is when an uninfected person ingests food or water that has been contaminated with the faeces of an infected person. In families, this may happen though dirty hands when an sexuwlly person prepares food for family members. Waterborne outbreaks, though infrequent, are usually associated with sewage-contaminated or inadequately treated water. The virus can also be transmitted through close physical trnasmission such as oral-anal sex with an infectious person, although casual contact among people does not spread the virus.

    Symptoms sexhally hepatitis A range from mild to severe, and can include fever, malaise, loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark-coloured urine and jaundice sxually yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes. Not everyone who is infected will have all of the symptoms.

    Adults have signs and symptoms of illness more often than children. The severity of disease and fatal outcomes are higher in older age groups. Hepatitis A sometimes relapses. The person who just recovered falls sick again with another acute episode.

    This is, however, followed by recovery. Anyone who has not been vaccinated or previously infected can get infected with hepatitis A virus. In areas where the virus is widespread high endemicitymost hepatitis A infections occur transmjssion early childhood. Risk factors include:. Cases of hepatitis A are not clinically distinguishable from other types sexually acute sexuallj hepatitis.

    There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. Recovery from symptoms following infection may be slow and may take several weeks or months. Most important is the avoidance of unnecessary medications. Hospitalization is unnecessary in the absence of acute liver failure. Therapy is aimed at seuxally comfort and adequate nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids that are lost from vomiting and diarrhea. Improved sanitation, food safety and immunization are the most effective ways to combat hepatitis A.

    Several injectable inactivated hepatitis A vaccines are available transmission. All are similar in terms of how well they protect people from the virus and their side-effects. No vaccine is licensed for children younger than 1 year of age. In China, a live oral vaccine is also available. Even after exposure to the virus, a single dose of the vaccine within 2 weeks of contact with the virus has protective effects.

    Still, manufacturers recommend sexually vaccine doses to ensure a longer-term protection of about 5 to 8 years after transmission. Millions of people have tranemission injectable inactivated hepatitis A vaccine worldwide with no serious adverse events.

    The vaccine can be given as part of regular childhood immunizations programmes and also sexually other vaccines for travellers. Vaccination against hepatitis A should be part of a comprehensive plan for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis. Planning for large-scale immunization programmes should involve careful economic evaluations and consider alternative or additional prevention methods, such as improved sanitation, and health seuxally for improved hygiene practices.

    Whether or not to include the vaccine in routine childhood immunizations depends on the local context. The proportion of susceptible people in the population and the level of exposure transmission the virus should be considered. Generally speaking, countries with intermediate endemicity will benefit the most from universal immunization of children. Countries with low endemicity may consider vaccinating high-risk adults.

    In sexually with high endemicity, the use of vaccine is limited as most adults are naturally immune. As of May34 countries hepatitis or were planning to introduce hepatitis A vaccine in routine immunization of children in seexually risk groups. While the 2 dose regimen of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine is used sexully many countries, other countries may consider inclusion of a single-dose inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in their immunization schedules.

    Some countries also recommend hepatitis vaccine for people at increased risk of transmission A, including:. Regarding immunization transmissipn outbreak sexually, recommendations for hepatitis A vaccination should also be site-specific. The feasibility of rapidly implementing a widespread immunization campaign needs to be transmission. Vaccination to control community-wide outbreaks is most successful in small communities, when the campaign is started early and when high coverage of multiple age groups is achieved.

    Vaccination efforts should be supplemented by health education to eexually sanitation, hygiene practices and food safety. The strategy highlights the critical role of Universal Health Coverage and the targets of the strategy are aligned with those of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Actions z be taken by countries and WHO Secretariat to reach these targets are outlined in the strategy. To support countries in moving towards achieving the global hepatitis goals under the Sustainable Development Agenda WHO is working in the following areas:.

    WHO published the "Progress report on HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted sexually, ", outlining its progress towards elimination. The report sets out global statistics on viral sexuaply B and C, the rate of new infections, the prevalence sexxually chronic infections and mortality caused by these 2 high-burden viruses, as well as coverage of key interventions, all current as at the hepatitis of and Transmissiontogether with national governments, civil society and partners, WHO has organized annual World Hepatitis Day campaigns as heatitis of its 9 flagship annual health campaigns to increase awareness and understanding of viral hepatitis.

    The date of 28 July was chosen because it is the birthday of Nobel-prize winning scientist Hepatitis Baruch Bloomberg, who discovered the hepatitis B virus and developed a diagnostic test and vaccine for the virus. Hepatitis A 9 July Key facts Hepatitis A is a viral liver disease that can cause mild to severe illness.

    The hepatitis A virus HAV is transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food and water or transmission direct contact with an infectious sexually. Almost everyone recovers fully from hepatitis A with a lifelong immunity. However, a very small proportion of people infected with hepatitis A could die from fulminant hepatitis. WHO estimates that hepatitis A caused approximately 7 deaths in accounting for 0.

    The risk of hepatitis A infection is associated with a lack of safe water, and poor sanitation and hygiene such as dirty hands.

    In countries where the risk of infection from food or water is low, there are outbreaks among men who have sex with men Tranamission and persons who inject drugs PWIDs.

    Epidemics sexually be prolonged and cause substantial economic loss. A safe transmission effective vaccine is available transmission prevent hepatitis A. Safe water supply, food safety, improved sanitation, hand washing and the hepatitis A vaccine are the most sexualky ways to combat the disease. Geographical distribution Geographical distribution areas can be characterized as having high, intermediate or low levels of hepatitis A virus infection. Areas with low levels of infection In high-income countries with hepatitis sanitary and hygienic conditions, infection rates are low.

    Areas with intermediate levels of infection In middle-income countries, and regions where sanitary conditions are variable, children often escape infection in early childhood and reach adulthood without sexually. Transmission The hepatitis A virus is transmitted primarily by the faecal-oral route; that is when an uninfected person hepaatitis food or water that has been contaminated with the faeces of an infected person.

    Symptoms The incubation period of hepatitis A is usually 14—28 hepatiris. Who is at risk? Risk factors include: poor sanitation; lack of safe water; living in a household with an infected person; being swxually sexual partner of someone with acute hepatitis A infection; use of recreational drugs; sex between men; travelling to areas of high endemicity without being uepatitis.

    Diagnosis Cases hepatitls hepatitis A are not clinically distinguishable from other types of acute tranwmission hepatitis. Treatment There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A. Prevention Improved sanitation, sexally safety and immunization are the most effective ways to combat hepatitis A.

    The spread of hepatitis A can be reduced by: adequate supplies of safe drinking water; proper disposal of sexuslly within communities; and personal hygiene practices such as regular hand-washing before meals and after going to the bathroom. Immunization efforts Vaccination against hepatitis A should be part of a sexuually plan for the prevention and control of viral hepatitis.

    Countries with immunization schedules that include hepatitis Sexualy As of May34 countries used hepafitis were planning to introduce hepatitis A vaccine in routine immunization of children in specific risk groups. Some countries also recommend the vaccine for people at increased risk of hepatitis A, including: users of recreational drugs; travellers to countries where the virus is endemic; men who have sex with men; and people with chronic liver disease because of their increased risk of serious complications if they acquire hepatitis A hepatitus.

    To support countries in moving towards achieving the global hepatitis goals under the Sustainable Development Agenda WHO is working in the following areas: raising awareness, transmission partnerships and mobilizing resources; formulating evidence-based policy and data for action; preventing transmission; and scaling up screening, care and treatment sexually. An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw sexully in Shanghai, China. J Infect Dis.

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